Guide: Empathy Maps

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      Empathy maps are the first step in design thinking. These visual tools used to better understand the feelings, behaviors, and motivations of a particular user or customer. They are often used in design thinking and user experience research to help teams develop a deeper understanding of their target audience.

      They typically consist of a simple diagram that represents a person’s experience or journey. The diagram is divided into four quadrants, each representing a different aspect of the user’s experience:

      1. Say: This quadrant focuses on what the user says or verbalizes. It includes direct quotes or paraphrases of the user’s words, as well as any feedback or comments they provide.
      2. Do: This quadrant represents the user’s actions or behaviors. It includes observations of what the user does or how they interact with a product or service.
      3. Think: This quadrant focuses on the user’s thoughts or feelings. It includes assumptions or inferences about the user’s mindset, as well as any emotional reactions or mental processes they may have.
      4. Feel: This quadrant represents the user’s emotions or attitudes. It includes any feelings or emotions that the user may experience during their journey, such as frustration, joy, or anxiety.

      By creating an empathy map, teams can gain a deeper understanding of their users’ needs and experiences, which can inform product development, marketing, and other strategic decisions.



      1. Identify the user or customer: Choose a specific user or customer that you want to understand better.
      2. Collect data: Gather information about the user’s behavior, preferences, and needs. You can use a variety of methods, such as surveys, interviews, user testing, or observation.
      3. Organize the data: Review the data you have collected and organize it into categories based on the four quadrants of the empathy map: say, do, think, and feel.
      4. Fill in the quadrants: Use the categories you have created to fill in the quadrants of the empathy map. Write down specific quotes, behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that represent the user’s experience.
      5. Identify patterns and insights: Look for patterns and insights in the data you have collected. What themes or trends emerge? What surprises you? What do you learn about the user’s motivations and needs?
      6. Use the empathy map: Use the empathy map to guide your decision-making and problem-solving. Consider how you can use the insights you have gained to improve your product, service, or communication with the user.
      7. Iterate: Refine and update the empathy map as you gather more information or as your understanding of the user evolves.


      1. Understanding the user: Allow teams to gain a deeper understanding of their users or customers by exploring their behavior, thoughts, feelings, and needs.
      2. Focusing on user needs: By prioritizing user needs and preferences, teams can create products or services that better meet user needs and provide a better user experience.
      3. Collaboration: Collaborative tool that can be used to bring together team members with diverse perspectives and expertise.
      4. Improving communication: By creating a shared understanding of the user, empathy maps can improve communication among team members and stakeholders, helping everyone to work towards a common goal.
      5. Innovation: Inspire innovation by providing new insights into user needs and preferences that can inform the development of new products, services, or features.
      6. Validating assumptions: Can help teams validate assumptions they may have about their users, allowing them to make more informed decisions based on real user data.


      1. Biases: The data used to create empathy maps can be biased, depending on the methods used to gather it, the biases of the research team, and the diversity of the user population studied.
      2. Limited perspective: Provide a snapshot of a user’s experience at a specific point in time, and may not capture the full complexity of their experience or needs.
      3. Lack of context: May not provide the context needed to fully understand the user’s behavior, thoughts, or feelings, which can limit the usefulness of the insights gained.
      4. Time-consuming: Creating empathy maps can be a time-consuming process, requiring significant resources and investment of time and effort.
      5. Limited impact: May not always lead to actionable insights or tangible changes in products or services, especially if the insights gained are not effectively communicated or integrated into the development process.

      Empathy Mapping: The First Step in Design Thinking


      When to Empathy Map: 3 Options

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