Design: Biophilic Architecture

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      Biophilic architecture is an approach to designing buildings and spaces that incorporate elements of nature and natural systems into the built environment. It is based on the idea that humans have an innate connection with nature, and that this connection can be leveraged to improve our physical, emotional, and cognitive well-being.

      This architecture can take many forms, from incorporating natural materials and textures into building design, creating indoor and outdoor spaces that mimic natural environments and using natural light and ventilation to create a healthier and more comfortable indoor environment.

      Some of the benefits include improved air quality, reduced stress and anxiety, increased productivity and creativity, and improved overall health and well-being. Biophilic design can be applied to a wide range of buildings, from homes and offices to schools, hospitals, and public spaces.

      This represents a growing trend in sustainable design, as architects and designers seek to create buildings that are not just environmentally friendly, but also promote human health and well-being.


      1. The Bullitt Center, Seattle, USA: This office building is designed to be one of the most sustainable buildings in the world. It features a living roof, natural ventilation, and a rainwater harvesting system, as well as large windows that provide ample natural light and views of the surrounding trees.
      2. Gardens by the Bay, Singapore: This popular attraction features two large domes that house a variety of plants and ecosystems from around the world. The domes are designed to mimic natural environments and provide visitors with an immersive experience of nature.
      3. The Edge, Amsterdam, Netherlands: This office building is designed to be the most sustainable building in the world, with features such as a smart lighting system, solar panels, and a green roof. It also features an indoor “jungle” with over 40 different plant species.
      4. The Bosco Verticale, Milan, Italy: This pair of residential towers features over 900 trees and 20,000 plants on its balconies, creating a vertical forest in the heart of the city.
      5. The California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA: This science museum features a living roof, a rainforest exhibit, and an aquarium that showcases local marine life. The building is designed to be a model of sustainable design and energy efficiency.


      Jewel Changi Airport Singapore world's largest indoor waterfall HSBC Rain Vortex 40m tall

      Jewel is a prime example of biophilic architecture. The complex, which opened in 2019, is located at Singapore’s Changi Airport and features a mix of retail, dining, and entertainment options, as well as a hotel and a 40-meter-tall indoor waterfall.

      The centerpiece of Jewel is the Forest Valley, a five-story indoor garden featuring over 2,000 trees and plants from around the world. The garden is designed to provide a calming and soothing environment for travelers, with walking trails, benches, and koi ponds.

      It also features a 40-meter-tall rain vortex, which is the world’s tallest indoor waterfall. The waterfall is surrounded by a glass facade that allows natural light to flood the interior of the building, creating a bright and welcoming environment.

      The complex is designed to be sustainable, with features like rainwater harvesting, energy-efficient lighting, and a green roof. The Forest Valley and other biophilic elements are also intended to provide a natural and eco-friendly atmosphere that promotes well-being and relaxation.

      This is a prime example of biophilic architecture, showcasing how natural elements can be integrated into a modern and functional space to create a more inviting and sustainable environment.



      1. Improved physical health: Improve physical health by providing access to natural light and ventilation, which can help regulate the body’s circadian rhythms and improve sleep. It can also help reduce the risk of illnesses associated with poor indoor air quality, such as asthma and allergies.
      2. Reduced stress and anxiety: Studies have shown that exposure to natural environments can help reduce stress and anxiety levels, and bring nature into indoor spaces. This can help create a more calming and soothing environment that promotes relaxation and reduces stress.
      3. Increased productivity: Help increase productivity and creativity by providing a stimulating and inspiring environment. Research has shown that exposure to nature can enhance cognitive functioning and increase attention span, which can improve work performance.
      4. Improved emotional well-being: Have a positive impact on emotional well-being by creating a more pleasant and inviting environment. This can help promote a sense of comfort and security, which can help reduce feelings of isolation and loneliness.
      5. Sustainable design: Associated with sustainable design practices, such as the use of renewable materials, energy-efficient technologies, and green infrastructure. This can help reduce the environmental impact of buildings and promote sustainable living practices.



      1. Cost: Incorporating biophilic elements into building design can be expensive, especially if it involves large-scale features like green roofs, living walls, or water features. These features may require specialized maintenance, which can also add to the cost.
      2. Maintenance: Biophilic elements can require more maintenance than traditional building features. Plants need to be watered and tended to, and living walls and green roofs may require specialized care. If maintenance is not performed regularly, biophilic features may become unsightly or even hazardous.
      3. Structural considerations: These features like living walls, green roofs, and water features can be heavy, and may require additional structural support to ensure that the building is safe and stable.
      4. Design challenges: Incorporating this into building design can be challenging, especially if the building is located in an urban area with limited access to natural resources like sunlight and water. Architects and designers may need to get creative in order to incorporate biophilic elements in a way that is functional and aesthetically pleasing.
      5. Health concerns: It can improve indoor air quality, there is a risk of mold and other allergens if moisture levels are not properly regulated. Water features like fountains and aquariums can also create humid conditions that may promote the growth of bacteria.
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